Meeting Planner

The following provides a schedule of presentations given by University, Argonne, Fermilab and MBL researchers and administrators with links to session details:

AAAS 2014 Annual Meeting PLANNER

13 - 17 February, Chicago IL 
Hyatt Regency Chicago 
151 East Wacker Drive
http://meetings.aaas.org/program/


Friday, 14 February 2014

Outsourcing Science: Will the Cloud Transform Research?

Friday, 14 February 2014: 8:00 AM-9:30 AM 
Acapulco (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), also known as “software on demand,” is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are located in the cloud rather than a user’s desktop or institution. First proposed as a cost reduction mechanism, SaaS has been widely adopted in industry as a disruptive technology. Businesses operate fundamentally differently today than just five years ago because of the rise of SaaS. Startups, larger companies, and consumers all outsource major information management and manipulation tasks to cloud providers. This symposium investigates the question of whether, how, and when a similar transformation may occur in science. In principle, challenging needs and limited budgets should create strong pressures for outsourcing many research functions—driving, perhaps, the complete relocation of laboratories to the cloud. In practice, we see far less adoption of such technologies in the research community. Is this limited adoption due to fundamental properties of science or alternatively to complacency, conservatism, funding models, and/or university bureaucracy? The answer likely contains shades of all these theories and many more. This symposium brings together pioneers in the research SaaS field to discuss what has worked and what has not, and to identify challenges going forward.

Organizer: Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory, The University of Chicago

Speakers:
Elizabeth Iorns, Science Exchange, Inc. 
A Science Services Marketplace
Gerhard Klimeck, Purdue University 
Scientific Simulation Software as a Service
Rick Stevens, Argonne National Laboratory, The University of Chicago
Accelerating Bacterial Genomics and Metagenomics via Science Services

 

Talking to Kids Really Matters: Early Language Experience Shapes Later Life Chances

Friday, 14 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Columbus KL (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

There are substantial differences in language proficiency among children that are already evident in infancy. By kindergarten, this gap has widened: many children from disadvantaged backgrounds have fallen way behind their more advantaged peers in verbal and other cognitive and non-cognitive abilities, disparities that are predictive of later academic success or failure. Where do these differences come from? Language abilities are influenced to some extent by genetics, but aspects of early experience associated with socioeconomic status (SES) are also hugely influential—in particular, SES differences in the home language environment experienced by young children. Observational studies have shown that the sheer amount and quality of caregivers' verbal engagement with infants and toddlers are linked to later cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes and school success in both monolingual and bilingual children. This session presents new experimental research exploring the mechanisms that underlie these powerful effects of early experience on language learning, with the goal of examining their origins, consequences, and social policy implications from the diverse perspectives of neuroscience, psychology, linguistics, education, and economics. Understanding more deeply how early experience affects childrens', and thus nations', economic outcomes provides a scientific basis for more effective intervention and for innovation in public policy that will benefit children and, ultimately, nations.

Organizer: Anne Fernald, Stanford University 

Speakers:
Kimberley Noble, Columbia University 
Socioeconomic Disparities in the Structure of Language Areas in the Developing Brain
Anne Fernald, Stanford University 
How Talking to Children Nurtures Language Development Across SES and Culture
Erika Hoff, Florida Atlantic University 
Early Language Trajectories of Children from Low-SES and Language Minority Homes
James Heckman, University of Chicago 
Giving Kids a Fair Chance Early in Life: A Strategy that Works

 

Hydraulic Fracturing: Science, Technology, Myths, and Challenges

Friday, 14 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Comiskey (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

The rapid growth in domestic oil and gas production from shale resources is having a profound impact on the U.S. energy landscape. However, the development of these resources has not occurred without controversy. These resources have been unlocked through the application of two primary technologies: horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or "fracking". The technique of hydraulic fracturing specifically has come under increased scrutiny by land owners and environmental groups over its uncertain impacts to groundwater. Furthermore, questions remain about the potential long term climate implications of abundant and inexpensive natural gas, especially in light of uncertainties surrounding fugitive methane emissions. Leaders from industry, academia, and the environmental community discuss how science and technology have helped to fuel the shale revolution, debunk myths about hydraulic fracturing, and identify challenges and possible solutions needed to ensure the safe and sustainable development of these resources.

Organizer: Christopher B. Harto, Argonne National Laboratory 

Co-Organizer: Alfred P. Sattelberger, Argonne National Laboratory 

Moderator: Christopher B. Harto, Argonne National Laboratory 

Speakers:
Avner Vengosh, Duke University 
Environmental Impacts and Risks
Gene Theodori, Sam Houston State University 
Social Implications of Hydraulic Fracturing
David Allen, University of Texas-Austin 
Air Emissions and Control Technologies
Dan Arthur , ALL Consulting 
Hydraulic Fracturing Technologies

 

Transplant Organ Shortage: Informing National Policies Using Management Sciences

Friday, 14 February 2014: 10:00 AM-11:30 AM
Columbus IJ (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

The clinical success of transplantation for the treatment of organ failure has resulted in a severe organ shortage; for example, there are currently almost 100,000 individuals in the U.S. on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Despite efforts, the total number of deceased and living organ donations remains flat at about 17,000. Consequently, waiting times and wait list mortality is at an all-time high. Organ allocation policies are determined based on legislated priorities, and organs are distributed based on suboptimal algorithms. There is a growing interest in optimizing organ utilization, while preserving the ethical equipoise between equity, justice, and utility. This trans-disciplinary symposium focuses on the use of advanced data-driven and model-based approaches to promote evidence-based policy changes that would make the U.S. organ transplant system more efficient and equitable. After introducing the process of determining national allocation policies, the speakers will focus on the use of scientific approaches to decrease current national inefficiencies and geographic disparities for organs from deceased donors and to inform allocation policy that optimizes utilization. The session will discuss the use of market design science to increase live donor transplantation, including addressing the problem of donor-recipient mismatches, the concept of regulated markets for live donors, and ethical considerations of live donor incentives.

Organizer: Michael Abecassis, Northwestern University 

Co-Organizer: Sanjay Mehrotra, Northwestern University 

Discussant: John Friedewald, Northwestern University 

Speakers:
Sanjay Mehrotra, Northwestern University 
Addressing Allocation Inefficiencies and Geographic Disparities
Alvin Roth, Stanford University 
Allocating Donor Organs in Ways that Increase Their Availability
Mark Siegler, University of Chicago 
Ethical Considerations for Innovative Strategies to Increase the Supply of Organs

 

Heinrich Jaeger: Granular Matter: From Basic Questions to New Concepts and Applications

William J. Friedman and Alicia Townsend Professor of Physics, University of Chicago
Friday, 14 February 2014: 12:00 PM-1:00 PM
Regency B (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Dr. Jaeger is a physicist whose current research focuses on investigations of self-assembled nanoparticle-based structures, on the flow of matter of dense suspensions, and on studies of the packing and flow of granular materials. His lab is investigating materials under conditions that give rise to complex phenomena, gaining insights in how to control properties in unique ways and design whole new classes of smart materials. He is a former director of the James Franck Institute and the Chicago Materials Research Center at the University of Chicago. He received a Ph.D. in physics from University of Minnesota, working on ultrathin superconducting films.

 

Reconstructing and Deconstructing Paintings: Innovations At and Below the Surface

Friday, 14 February 2014: 1:00 PM-2:30 PM
Grand Ballroom A (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

A deep connection to our past and shared cultural heritage must be preserved to foster a balanced society where all humanity can thrive. Moderated by a museum leader, this symposium presents cross-disciplinary and international perspectives on the scientific study of paintings from all ages. It will describe analysis of paint materials used by Pablo Picasso at the nanoscale, as only possible at the brightest synchrotron sources. It will highlight how new imaging techniques can reveal the invisible, bringing to light underlying compositions of old masters’ paintings. This in turn enables the writing of new art history and provides important material clues that can assist with attribution and authentication. This symposium will also demonstrate how scientific analysis and cutting-edge computer science can lead to innovative approaches to touchless virtual restoration and to the inspiring public presentation of a contemporary art masterpiece by Mark Rothko, literally turning back the hand of time. Researchers from museums, academia, and large facilities will explain how the use of new technology can lead to new discoveries, which, in turn, can change the public’s and the specialists’ perception of great works of art.

Organizer: Francesca Casadio, The Art Institute of Chicago 

Co-Organizer: Katherine Faber, Northwestern University 

Moderator: Martha Tedeschi, The Art Institute of Chicago 

Discussant: Martha Tedeschi, The Art Institute of Chicago 

Speakers:
Volker Rose, Argonne National Laboratory 
Picasso at the Nanoscale: Investigating the Chemistry of Iconic Paints
Joris Dik, Delft University of Technology 
Innovations in Macro-XRF Mapping Enable a New Kind of Art History
Jens Stenger, Harvard Art Museums 
Noninvasive Color Restoration of Mark Rothko's Harvard Murals

 

Research Challenges in Climate Change: What’s New and Where Are We Going?

Friday, 14 February 2014: 1:30 PM-4:30 PM
Grand Ballroom B (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Two new reports, the U.S. National Climate Assessment and the Working Group I Assessment Report 5 (AR5) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will be released in early 2014. These new assessments evaluate the state of the science and the major changes in findings over the last 4 to 6 years since the last assessments were released. During the process of developing these assessments, a number of new analyses have been completed that have helped resolve old issues but some have uncovered new scientific challenges. There are many indicators of a changing climate. These changes in climate and the projections of further changes over the coming decades present major challenges for society. The process of completing these assessments offers a unique opportunity to identify new scientific challenges to advance our understanding of this major societal challenge. This session will look at what we have learned, examine where the science is heading, and discuss the major issues where new scientific advances are needed. This session examines the recent changes in the science and what that tells us about the understanding of the changes occurring in climate and  discusses the big issues the scientific community is still struggling with and what this means to the direction of the science over the next decade. The emphasis will be on new research challenges.

Organizer: Donald J. Wuebbles, University of Illinois 

Co-organizers: Thomas R. Karl, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) 
and Jerry Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory 

Discussants: Jerry Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory 
and Thomas R. Karl, NOAA 

Speakers:
Donald J. Wuebbles, University of Illinois 
The U.S. National Climate Assessment: Key Research Challenges in Climate Science
Ben Kirtman, University of Miami
 
Lessons from IPCC on Key Research Challenges in Climate Science
Michael Wehner, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
Research Challenges Affecting Extreme Events in a Changing Climate
Peter U. Clark, Oregon State University 
Research Challenges in Understanding Sea Level Rise
Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Stanford University; Chris Field, Carnegie Institution for Science and Stanford University 
Research Challenges in Managed and Natural Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change
Rosina Bierbaum, University of Michigan 
Research Challenges for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change

 

Next Generation Electrical Energy Storage: Beyond Lithium Ion Batteries

Friday, 14 February 2014: 3:00 PM-4:30 PM
Columbus IJ (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

The two largest energy sectors—electricity and transportation—are poised for transformational change driven by next generation electrical energy storage. The future electricity grid will deploy wind and solar generation on a wide scale, level load peaks and valleys, and manage demand using high capacity, low cost stationary energy storage embedded in a smart grid. Personal transportation ready for electrification will replace foreign oil with domestic electricity and significantly reduce carbon emissions, driven by portable high energy density, low cost electricity storage. These transformational impacts on transportation and the grid require next generation electrical energy storage with five times the energy density and one-fifth the cost of today’s best commercial batteries. The symposium examines the impact that such electricity storage technologies will have on the grid and transportation, and the promising discoveries and innovations beyond today’s lithium ion battery technology that will raise performance and lower cost.

Organizer: George Crabtree, Argonne National Laboratory 

Co-Organizer: Jeff Chamberlain, Argonne National Laboratory 

Speakers:
Dan Rastler, Electric Power Research Institute 
Storage and the Next Generation Electricity Grid
Mark Mathias, General Motors Research and Development 
Transforming Transportation with Portable Electricity Storage
Jeff Chamberlain, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 
Next Generation Electricity Storage: Beyond Lithium Ion


Saturday, 15 February 2014

How Big Data Supports Biomedical Discovery

Big Data: Applications and Implications

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 8:00 AM-9:30 AM
Regency D (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Creating large repositories of biomedical data is acknowledged to be critical to making discoveries and creating innovations in biology, medicine, and health care, but is particularly challenging due to the compliance, security, and consent process required. Sometimes large repositories like these are called biomedical commons. In this session, different perspectives are presented on how to build large-scale commons of biomedical data and how to make these available to a broad international community of researchers. The perspectives highlight some of the technical, legal, policy, and behavioral challenges when creating biomedical commons and some of the solutions that the projects discussed have developed. Technical challenges include the management, integration, indexing, analysis, transport, and archiving of petabyte-scale datasets. Legal and policy challenges include integration of data with different consent policies and the harmonization of different national data privacy policies. Other challenges including providing access to a broad community of researchers, not just those at the major research centers, who were the only ones, until recently, who had access to the computational infrastructure required to manage petabyte-size datasets. The perspectives present cases covering regional, national, and international big data biomedical commons projects.

Organizer: Robert L. Grossman, University of Chicago 

Speakers:
Brian D. Athey, University of Michigan 
The tranSMART Open Data Sharing and Analytics Cloud Platform
Lincoln Stein, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research 
The Cancer Genome Collaboratory 
Robert L. Grossman, University of Chicago 
Supporting a Biomedical Commons with the Bionimbus Protected Data Cloud

 

U.S. National User Facilities: A Major Force for Discovery and Innovation

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Columbus EF (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

The United States’ national scientific user facilities provide unique capabilities, instrumentation, and expertise annually to approximately 50,000 scientists and engineers from academia, government, and industry. For many of these individuals, a user facility is their laboratory—their primary platform for experimental research—and they gain access to these unique tools through peer-reviewed proposals. Much of the research is basic (discovery) research, but the rich interdisciplinary environment promotes interactions among scientists from diverse fields, institutional types, and countries to facilitate the translation of these discovery findings into solutions to real-world problems. This symposium provides an overview of the capabilities offered by these national facilities and highlights outstanding recent examples of discovery and innovation stemming from work at the user facilities, including the development of energy-harvesting “solar shingles,” the discovery of the structure of key biological molecules, the development of new drugs, and the discovery and the contributions to our understanding of fundamental science. The symposium includes presentations by the major federal sponsors of the user facilities with time for discussion of the policy challenges facing this key facet of the U.S. scientific enterprise now and into the future.

Organizer: Susan Strasser, Argonne National Laboratory 

Co-Organizer: Ben Brown, U.S. Department of Energy 

Moderator: Yves Idzerda, Montana State University 

Speakers:
Eric Isaacs, Argonne National Laboratory 
User Facilities: Unique Resources for Interdisciplinary Discovery and Innovation
Roger Falcone, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley Lab 
Materials in Extreme Conditions: Science Across a Range of Facilities
Stephen Wasserman, Eli Lilly and Company 
From X-Rays to Pharmacy Shelves: How User Facilities Accelerate Drug Design
Eric Gawiser, Rutgers University 
The Sky is Not the Limit: Astronomical Discoveries at National User Facilities
Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy 
The Office of Science User Facilities: Challenges and Opportunities
F. Fleming Crim, NSF 
The National Science Foundation User Facilities: Challenges and Opportunities

 

The Future of Cities: Dense or Dispersed?

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Grand Ballroom A (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

United Nations indicates that almost 200,000 people are urbanizing on this planet every day. This means we, as a global species, need to build a new or expanded city of a million inhabitants every week. The question becomes: Where do these new urban dwellers go in the dense, vertical city or the dispersed, horizontal city? There are many that believe that the sustainability benefits of increased density in cities (e.g., better land use, reduction of suburban infrastructure, reduced vehicle travel time, etc.) are considerable. However there are implications to this—not least the social implications of people living and working in denser proximity. This panel brings together professionals with varied perspectives—architects, urban planners, engineers, and social scientists—to fully present and then debate the issues.

Organizer: Antony Wood, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 

Co-organizers:
Daniel Safarik, Illinois Institute of Technology 
and John Ronan, Illinois Institute of Technology 

Speakers:
Wiel Arets, Illinois Institute of Technology 
The City of the Future: What Will It Be?
William F. Baker, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill 
The Case for Density
Francesca Birks, Arup 
Drivers of Change
Saskia Sassen, Columbia University 
Urbanizing Technology
Virginia Parks, University of Chicago 
Urban Form, Job Access, and Economic Mobility

 

Have You Heard About the Higgs? How to Share Your Science Globally

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 11:45 AM-12:45 PM
Grand Ballroom F (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Tired of using Google Translate to prepare your press releases for distribution in Japan? Finding it a challenge to align communication procedures and schedules with international partners? Want to have your science-news story celebrated around the world like the Higgs discovery? Join us at this workshop that will identify the specific strategies and practices that build international science-news collaborations, distinct from international science collaborations. Learn from several media experts based in Europe and Asia as well as the trail-blazing InterAction Collaboration that provides a global platform for coordinating particle-physics communications.

Coordinator: Katie Yurkewicz, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 

Co-coordinator: Timothy Meyer, TRIUMF 

Presenters:
Youhei Morita, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology 
Vincenzo Napolano, INFN 
and Timothy Meyer, TRIUMF 

 

Variability in Speech and Language in Individuals with Autism and Associated Traits

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 1:00 PM-2:30 PM
Columbus IJ (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Individuals on the autism spectrum are characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Recent studies have shown that autistic traits are not restricted to individuals who have clinical diagnoses of autism. Research has focused on identifying markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the associated traits (the broader autism phenotype, or BAP) in auditory and language processing, particularly in the domain of pragmatics and discourse. Until recently, however, few studies have looked at the impact that autism spectrum and associated traits have on speech perception and production. Also not yet fully explored is how these findings inform the broader inquiries concerning the nature of human linguistic abilities. Are the differences in linguistic behaviors a reflex of a broken language “faculty” or should they be thought of as quantitative extremes of the normal distribution? This symposium reviews the most current research in the field and considers its implications from linguistic, psychological, and neuropsychological perspectives. The findings highlight the tremendous variations in linguistic abilities among individuals with varying degrees of autistic traits on and off the spectrum. Better understanding the sources of this variability will not only inform future studies of autism, it will also contribute to better appreciation of the complexity of the human language faculty.

Organizer: Alan C. Yu, University of Chicago 

Speakers:
Alan C. Yu, University of Chicago 
Variability in Speech Production in Adults with Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits
Cynthia G. Clopper, Ohio State University 
Perception of Sociolinguistic Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism
Amanda Seidl, Purdue University 
The Broader Autism Phenotype and Speech Processing Style
 

 

Extremities of the Cosmos: New Experimental Results in Particle Astrophysics

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 1:30 PM-4:30 PM
Regency C (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Particle astrophysics probes the most extreme environments of nature: the highest energies, the emptiest vacuum of space, the smallest times and distances, the earliest moments of time, and new forms of matter and energy that dominate the origin and evolution of the cosmos as a whole. This symposium features speakers in several areas where new experimental techniques are currently producing new results with rapid improvements in precision and/or sensitivity. Leading scientists will present results from their own projects while also providing a short survey of related results worldwide in this fast-moving field. An overview of particle astrophysics—experiments that probe new fundamental physics by using the extreme environments provided by the cosmos—and  new experimental results will be discussed, including data on showers created by the highest energy cosmic rays that give clues to their origin and composition; deep underground experiments that limit, or in some cases hint at detections of, interactions with weakly interacting cosmic dark matter particles from the halo of our galaxy; gamma ray telescopes that give a new view into the highest energy cataclysms of the cosmos, and possibly intragalactic dark matter decays and annihilations; and a new kind of experiment being developed to probe evidence of quantum behavior of space-time itself, and a minimum interval of time.

Organizer: Craig Hogan, Fermilab and University of Chicago 

Speakers:
Rocky Kolb, University of Chicago 
Overview: Advances and Prospects in Particle Astrophysics
Karen Byrum, Argonne National Lab 
New Results from Cosmic Gamma Rays
Angela Olinto, University of Chicago 
New Results on the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays
Dan Bauer, Fermilab 
New Results on Direct Detection of Cosmic Dark Matter
Aaron Chou, Fermilab 
Experimental Probes of Quantum Geometry

 

A New Era for Urban Research: Open Data and Big Computation

Big Data: Applications and Implications

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 1:30 PM-4:30 PM
Regency D (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Cities are the crucibles of civilization, generating creativity and connections that advance humankind. But cities also demand resources that threaten the environment, consume an increasing share of local economy to operate effectively, and include the most at-risk groups with respect to social, economic, and educational opportunities. Over the next two decades we will see the world's urban population grow from 50 to 70 percent, representing an additional 3 billion city dwellers. These trends bring urgency to understanding the impact of rapid urban growth and change on the environment, on urban infrastructure, and on city inhabitants.

To better understand how cities function – and more effectively design future urban areas – will require a novel, interdisciplinary science. Social scientists, computer scientists, public health experts, architects, economists, urban planners, and policy makers are uniting to collect richer information, analyze data sources, and develop models aimed at understanding the complex dynamics of cities. New opportunities exist to understand the state of urban social and economic systems and to develop calibrated, validated computational models to explore the potential impact of new policies, investments, interventions, and accelerating expansion of urban built infrastructure. Presenters will discuss efforts underway that use cities such as Chicago, New York, and Beijing as "living laboratories" for data-driven urban research, design and policy.

Organizer and Moderator: Charlie Catlett, Argonne National Laboratory/University of Chicago

Speakers:
Philip Enquist, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill 
Cities, Livability, and Responsibility to the Planet
Steven E. Koonin, New York University Center for Urban Science and Progress 
The Promise of Urban Science
Karen Weigert, City of Chicago 
Science-Driven Sustainability Policies in Chicago
Andrew Yao, Tsinghua University 
Urban Sensing and Informatics
Robert J. Sampson, Harvard University; Daniel O’Brien, Harvard University 
Ecometrics in the Age of Big Data: Measuring Urban Social Processes and Inequality
Mario Small, University of Chicago 
Poverty and Organizational Density

 

Promoting Science Through Storytelling: A Case Study

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 2:15 PM-3:15 PM
Grand Ballroom F (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

137 Films and Fermi National Laboratory will present a case study in using storytelling to communicate and promote science to the general public. Fermilab's commission to the film company to produce a short independently produced documentary, using the methods and style developed by 137 Films in The Atom Smashers, will be used as a unique model for science and art collaboration in science storytelling. Presenting an example of science storytelling in action will lead attendants in understanding what "telling your story" looks like and can lead to ideas for other collaborations between professional storytellers, artists, and scientists.

Coordinator: Monica Long Ross, 137 Films 

Co-coordinator: Clayton Brown, 137 Films 

Presenter:
Kurt Riesselmann, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 

 

Innovations in Crystallography Meet Demands in Materials Science, Energy, and Health

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 3:00 PM-4:30 PM
Columbus EF (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Targeted drug design, auto components and computer memory keep getting better thanks to atomic-scale studies of their molecular structure that enable industry to improve effectiveness, high-performance materials, and storage density. Our daily world is awash with examples of the benefits of X-ray crystallography. Open-access to X-ray lightsources has created a hub of innovation, bringing together industry, government, and academia from dozens of countries in the developed and developing world to focus on global challenges. Crystallography has made inroads toward the control of diseases such as HIV, influenza, and West Nile virus as well as advances toward global sustainability through energy efficient products and farming productivity. Ongoing innovations in microbeams, sample environments and preparation, and serial femtosecond crystallography continue to expand the detail scientists can get about the structure and thus properties and functions of molecules of all sizes. Crystallography has become a truly interdisciplinary field with ties to 28 Nobel Prizes and research in physics, biology, chemistry, mineralogy, geoscience and even cultural heritage. As the world celebrates the U.N. designated International Year of Crystallography, this session will look at advances in the field made possible by X-ray lightsources as well as new research tackling some of the biggest challenges in materials science, energy, sustainability, and global health.

Organizer: Tona Kunz, Argonne National Laboratory 

Speakers:
Sebastien Boutet, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 
X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers Open New Realm of Crystallography
John Mitchell, Argonne National Laboratory 
Crystallography in Materials Science: Where the Atoms Are and How to Put Them There
Wayne Hendrickson, Columbia University 
Crystallography in Life Science: Unlocking the Secrets of Disease


 

 

Analogical Processes in STEM Learning

Saturday, 15 February 2014: 3:00 PM-4:30 PM
Columbus KL (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Scientific discovery and innovation requires a high level of scientific understanding, as well as the ability to see connections across fields. Analogical processes are central to both of these goals. Research in psychology and education has shown that the ability to notice and process analogies within and between domains is central to innovation and discovery. This session shows how analogical learning processes can improve understanding of key principles of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will present three innovative research projects that use analogy in different ways to support STEM learning. The first talk shows that analogical comparison can support learning fundamental strategies of scientific reasoning, such as formulating hypotheses and evaluating evidence. The second talk investigates the use of analogy in classroom mathematics teaching, and finds that incorporating techniques designed to facilitate analogical comparison improves children’s success in understanding classroom mathematics lessons. The third talk presents studies done in museum settings, in which children gained understanding of a basic engineering principle through analogical comparison. By encouraging young learners to use analogical mapping processes, we can improve their understanding of scientific principles and prepare them for further analogies that may lead to new discoveries.

Organizer: Dedre Gentner, Northwestern University 

Speakers:
Zhe Chen, University of California, Davis 
The Role of Analogy in Learning Scientific Processing Strategies
Lindsey Richland, University of Chicago 
Educating Students for Innovation in STEM: Analogy Is a Key
Dedre Gentner, Northwestern University 
Analogy Supports Learning a Basic Engineering Principle in Museum Settings


Sunday, 16 February 2014

Exploring the Foundations of Magnetism with New Nanoscale Probes

Sunday, 16 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Columbus EF (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

With the growing use of magnetic nanoparticles in biological systems and magnetic nanostructures in information storage and low-power computation, studies of the small-scale behavior of tiny magnets and their interfaces with other materials have become essential for global challenges in health and sustainability. For example, new magnetic systems may permit single-molecule nuclear magnetic resonance directly through magnetic sensing. This symposium brings together prominent researchers from around the world who are pioneering approaches to probe the foundations of nanoscale magnetism. The smallest length scale envisioned is the atomic scale, where the chemical sensitivity of X-rays can now be combined with the atomic-scale resolution of scanning tunneling microscopes. The largest scale is that of fundamental excitations of magnetic systems, i.e., the vortex scale, where scanning magnetic probes have now visualized a single vortex and probed its pinning dynamics from a single site that pins it in place. In between, the use of exceptionally sensitive, scanning, quantum-coherent probes of magnetic fields can pick up the magnetic field of a few protons in a molecule, or detect the fields of nearby molecules while optically trapped in a biological fluid. The advances in these techniques suggest many problems in physics, biology, and chemistry can now be solved by direct measurement of nanoscale magnetism.

Organizer: Michael E. Flatté, University of Iowa 

Speakers:
Volker Rose, Argonne National Laboratory 
Synchrotron X-Ray Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
David Awschalom, University of Chicago 
Mobile Electron Spin Resonance with Spins in Optically Trapped Nanodiamonds
Daniel Rugar, IBM Almaden Research Labs 
Nanoscale Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Spin Sensor
A. F. Otte, Delft University for Technology 
Signs of Budding Magnetism in Atom-By-Atom Designed Spin Structures
P. Chris Hammel, Ohio State University 
Ferromagnetic Resonance Force Microscopy
Mark Freeman, University of Alberta 
Quantitative Magneto-Mechanical Detection and Control of the Barkhausen Effect

 

Technological Innovations and Their Impact on Astronomical Discovery

Sunday, 16 February 2014: 8:30 AM-11:30 AM
Water Tower (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Discovery based on innovation has been the hallmark of astronomy over the past two decades. Our understanding of the universe—from our own solar system to the broad issues of cosmology—has improved immeasurably over this period while, paradoxically, what we don’t know related to such issues as dark matter and energy has also been highlighted. This session covers technological innovations and their impact on astronomical research and discovery. The focus of each talk centers on a particular technological innovation that has transformed the field of astronomy in some way: large telescopes, adaptive optics, infrared arrays, wide field imaging surveys, radio interferometry, and instruments for cosmic microwave background measurements. The session describes the technology, the history of its development, and the astronomical discoveries and research enabled by the technology.

Organizer: Margaret Meixner, Space Telescope Science Institute 

Co-Organizer: Donald Campbell, Cornell University 

Moderator: Margaret Meixner, Space Telescope Science Institute 

Speakers:
Matt Mountain, Space Telescope Science Institute 
The Quest for Larger, Lighter and More Powerful Telescopes 
Claire Max, University of California, Santa Cruz 
Adaptive Optics and Its Impact on Optical and Infrared Astronomy
Marcia Rieke, University of Arizona 
From One by One to 4K by 4K: Infrared Astronomy Enters the Digital Age
J. Anthony Tyson, University of California 
Imaging the Sky: Innovations
Philip R. Jewell, North American ALMA Science Center 
How Advances in Radio Interferometry are Providing New Windows on the Submillimeter U
John Carlstrom, University of Chicago 
Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

 

The Science of Resilient Aging

Sunday, 16 February 2014: 1:30 PM-4:30 PM
Grand Ballroom A (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

Contrary to popular beliefs about inevitable deterioration with age, there is accumulating evidence for wide variation in patterns of growth and decline through the adult lifespan. In fact, many adults exhibit high levels of physical and mental fitness, engage in satisfying activities, and sustain rich and nurturing social relationships into very late in the life span. Longer life spans are contributing to aging on a global scale. Population aging is unprecedented, pervasive, and projected to endure such that by 2050, for the first time in history, the proportion of adults over the age of 60 is expected to match the number of people who are younger than 15 years of age (with 21percent for each segment of the population). These trends create challenges for virtually every facet of human life, including health, families, work, and civic engagement. It is critical to discover the scientific principles underlying resilient aging and ways to translate these principles so that successful aging becomes the typical, rather than the exceptional, case. This interdisciplinary symposium considers a broad array of factors that promote resilient aging, within each domain addressing: What is known about the pathways to aging well? What are the critical outcomes that provide evidence for resilience?  Where is the untapped potential for translational intervention, and at what point in the lifespan?

Organizer: Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

Speakers:
Teresa Seeman, University of California, Los Angeles 
Exploring Life-Course Stress and Resilience Factors in Relation to Biological Aging
Yaakov Stern, Columbia University 
Cognitive Reserve: The Role of Education and Complex Work and Leisure to Resilience
Kirk Erickson, University of Pittsburgh 
Aging, Exercise, and Brain Plasticity
Ulman Lindenberger, Max Planck Institute for Human Development 
Cognitive Plasticity in Adulthood: Theory and Data
Daniel K. Mroczek, Northwestern University 
Personality, Health and Longevity
John T. Cacioppo, University of Chicago 
Rewarding Social Connections Promote Successful Aging

 

Dark Matter Discoveries: Challenges and Innovation

Sunday, 16 February 2014: 1:30 PM-4:30 PM
Columbus IJ (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

The recent results from the Planck satellite confirm that a staggering 85 percent of matter in the universe is a new form not accounted for by the Standard Model of particle physics. Leading particle candidates for dark matter are weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with mass between 10 and 1000 times that of the proton. The WIMP is strongly motivated by supersymmetry and detectable also as a product of the highest energy proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Several experiments attempting to directly detect dark matter particles streaming from space have already reported puzzling results with possible signals. New “telescopes” like Fermi, AMS, and IceCube can detect WIMP dark matter particles annihilating in space. Major discoveries may be imminent, as a multi-pronged experimental program moves forward rapidly, driving technological innovations for ultra-sensitive detectors. This is a timely symposium at the crossroads of particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology that will include a theoretical overview and talks on the latest results and technologies of the leading dark matter particle searches.

Organizer: Maria Spiropulu, California Institute of Technology 

Speakers:
Joseph Lykken, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 
Dark Matter Particles: What Could They Be? How Do We Look for Them?
Samuel C.C. Ting, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the Brink
Bernard Sadoulet, University of California 
The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search
Elena Aprile, Columbia University 
Dark Matter Detection with XENON
Juan Collar, University of Chicago 
Dark Matter Out of the Box
Luca Grandi, University of Chicago 
News from the DarkSide


Monday, 17 February 2014

Statistical Methods for Large Environmental Datasets

Monday, 17 February 2014: 9:45 AM-11:15 AM
Columbus IJ (Hyatt Regency Chicago)

There is great need for novel statistical methods for the analysis of massive environmental data to address challenges that examine the interdependences between multiple processes that influence the biosphere. The statistical challenges within just climatology or atmospheric chemistry or oceanography have been a focus for intense activity; however, considering the atmospheric and oceanic sciences as a whole will allow us to examine the critical aspect of interdependencies between processes. For example, in order to understand climate fully, it is essential to understand weather, atmospheric chemistry, oceans, ice, and terrestrial processes, particularly with respect to the carbon and water cycles. Biological processes and human activities are both affected by and affect climate on local (urban heat islands), regional (land use patterns), and global scales (greenhouse gas emissions), such that a comprehensive study also requires hydrology, forestry, ecology, agriculture, economics and public policy. The development of appropriate statistical models for these processes remains a challenge because of the immense difficulty of accurately capturing dynamic aspects of spatio-temporal processes, especially nonlinear and non-stationary behavior. This session discusses common statistical themes across these major scientific problems and innovations developed to address these challenges.

Organizer: Charmaine Dean, University of Western Ontario 

Speakers:
Doug Nychka, National Center for Atmospheric Research 
Regional Climate Models, Spatial Data and Extremes
Montse Fuentes, North Carolina State University 
Impact of Climate Change on Mortality
Michael Stein, University of Chicago 
Statistical Methods for Spatio-Temporal Interactions and Their Assessment